PARTICIPANTS’ MATERIAL
ON
MANAGERIAL QUALITIES AND SKILLS

Prepared by:
ASK
Association for Stimulating Know How
V- 30/3 , DLF PHASE –III
GURGAON -122002
PHONE NO. – 0124 – 4060353-54
Website : www.askindia.org

 

  1. The Roles and Responsibilities of a Manager
  2. Qualities Required to Perform the Responsibility
  3. The Characteristics of a Professional
  4. Golden Steps to be an Effective Manager
  5. Three Types of Managers
  6. Qualities of a Manager
  7. Skills of a Manager

 

THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A MANAGER

The first step in becoming a professional manager is to understands one's Roles and Responsibilities:

Enforce High Work Standards

This means telling your staff exactly what they need to do, and the work standards they need to meet, and acting to ensure that they achieve them. What often happens in mature operations is that roles becomes highly analyzed and codified to salary schedules. The tasks and responsibilities assigned to them solidify, and it may happen that the staff is entangled in completing daily assignments and does not think innovatively. It becomes imperative on part of the manger to identify targets and challenge yourself and your colleagues to achieve the required as well as desirable results.

Define Skill Requirement

The important thing about assigning roles and responsibilities is to define clearly what skills and talents each role needs, then find the people who have those skills and talents. People may have limitations or talents that cross role boundaries. In such cases, creative managers are inclined to restructure responsibilities, so that they can avail themselves of the best each has to offer.

Communicate with Superiors and Staff

Many problems in organizations are due to a lack of clear communication between management staff. As a manager, you must be very active and accurate in passing information from your seniors to your juniors and also in reporting important problems, issues and information to the different level of staffs, so that they can be solved.

Monitor Staff Performance

As a manager, you must spend plenty of time in the field, making sure that your staffs are doing what they are supposed to do. You cannot supervise effectively if you spend all your time in the office.

Coach and give feedback to staff

It makes sense to tailor roles and responsibilities to the strengths of team members. People are usually good at the things for which they have talent. They learn it easily. They like doing it, and usually have an interest in excelling at it. They do not need external motivation.

Similarly people avoid that which they do not do well, what they have no talent for and where learning mastery comes with difficulty. These are the aspects of job that they neglect or put off until there is no longer a way to avoid them.

When you monitor your staff, your job is not to punish mistakes. Your job is to show appreciation of work well done, and to help staff correct any mistakes they have made. This means working with them continuously to improve their work performance over time.

Solve work problems

When you see problems in the field, you need to do more than just report them to your superiors. If you can, you should actively solve the problems with your staff. A good manager is a problem solver, not just a problem reporter.

Enforce discipline

A manager makes sure his staffs follow the organization's rules and regulations. He/ She corrects the employees who break the rules in a humane and effective way.

Qualities Required To Perform the Responsibility

Ø      Knowledge of the subject

Ø      Willingness and interest in work.

Ø      Openness and friendly

Ø      Listening and accepting opinions.

Ø      Patience

Ø      Punctuality and regularity

Ø      Encouraging

Ø      Challenging attitude

Ø      Problem solving attitude

Ø      Considerate

Ø      Firm and caring

Ø      Sensitivity toward others

Ø      Positive attitude

The Characteristics of a Professional

What is professionalism? Does it depend on someone's profession?

Or does it depend on the characteristics of the person?

Actually anyone can be considered professional, regardless of the job they do. If they possess the three main components of professionalism, which is as follows:

Good Knowledge: What you know about your job. All the theory and concepts that you have learnt about your job

Good Skills: Your practical ability to do different tasks to high standards.

Positive attitude: The way you see your job and life in general. Whether you tend to see things positively or negatively

Someone with good knowledge (K), good Skills(S), and a positive attitude (A+) can be considered a KSA+ person – a true professional.


Golden Steps to be an Effective Manager

  1. Understanding the needs and characteristics of the team

Each individual member of the group has certain needs and characteristics.

  1. Knowing and using the resources of the group

Resources include all those things necessary to do a job.

Resources also include people, because people have knowledge and skills. Knowledge is what a person learns through familiarity or experience –what you know. Skills are the ability to use what you know. Attitude includes the desire to do something-motivation- and the belief that you can do it – confidence.

When the manager uses the knowledge and skills of the group members to get a job done, the members gain experience and improved skills. They also develop a positive attitude towards using a skill.

  1. Communicating

To improve your skills in getting information:

§         Pay attention and listen carefully

§         Make notes and sketches

§         Ask questions and repeat your understanding of what was said.

To improve your skills in giving information:

§         Be sure others are listening before you speak

§         Speak slowly and clearly

§         Draw diagrams, if needed. Ask those receiving information to take notes.

§         Have the listeners repeat their understanding of what was said. Encourage questions.

  1. Planning
Planning is an important part of everything we do in exploring. The following is a simple process for planning.

§         Consider the task and objectives. What do you want to accomplish?

§         Consider the resources- equipment, knowledge, skills, and attitude.

§         Consider the alternatives. Brainstorm.

§         Reach a decision, evaluating each option.

§         Write the plan down and review it with the post

§         Execute the plan

§         Evaluate the plan

  1. Controlling group performance

A manager influences the performance of the group and individual members through his/ her actions. Why is control needed?

Control is a function that a group assigns to the leader to get the job done.

Control happens as a result of recognizing the difference between where the group is and where the group is going.

The manager is responsible for developing a plan to help the group get to its goal. Setting the example is the most effective way of controlling the group. When working with post members, do the following.

§         Continually observe the group. Know what is happening and the attitude of the group.

§         Make your instructions are clear and pertinent.

§         Pitch in and help when necessary.

§         Quickly deal with disruption. Guide members towards self- discipline.

  1. Evaluating

Evaluating helps measure the performance of a group in getting a job done and working together.  It suggests ways in which the group can improve its performance.

There are two basic categories of evaluation questions. After any activity, ask these questions:

Getting the job done-

§         Was the job done?

§         Was the job done right?

§         Was the job done on time?

Keeping the group together-

§         Were relationships between group members helped or hurt?

§         Was participation equally distributed among the group members?

§         Did the group enjoy the activity?

§         Did the group handle conflicts well?

  1. Setting the example

Setting the example is probably the most important leadership skill. It is the most effective way to show others the proper way to conduct themselves, and is even more effective than verbal communication.

Without this skill, all the other skills will be useless. One way to think about setting the example is to imagine yourself as a member of a group and think about how you would like your manager to act.

  1. Sharing leadership

The exploring leader wants to give the members the skills he/ she posses, not to use those skills in ways that keep the team weak or dependent.

Lao Tzu a Chinese philosopher said “but of a good leader.. When the work is done, h is aim fulfilled, they will say, “we did this ourselves”

He/ she offers leadership opportunities to team members and teaches them the skills they need.

  1. Counseling

It is important

§         To help people solve problems

§         To encourage or reassure

§         To help an explorer reach his or her potential

Counseling can be effective when a person is

§         Undecided- he or she can't make a decision

§         Confused- he/she doesn't have enough information or has too much information

§         Locked in – he/ she doesn't know any alternatives.

How do you counsel?

§         First, try to understand the situation. Listen carefully, summarize, check the facts, and paraphrase to make sure you understand.

§         Second, help list as many options as possible

§         Third, help list the disadvantages of the options

§         Fourth, help list the advantages of the options

§         Finally let the person decide on a solution. The counselor role is to give encouragement and information not advice.

  1. Representing the Group

The manager represents the team in two situations:

§         Without consultation- when he/ she doesn't have the opportunity to consult with the team about decision

§         With consultation- when he/ she can meet with team about the issue

  1. Effective Teaching

Effective teaching is a process to increase the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the manager and its team. The focus is on learning, not teaching. For teaching to be effective, learning must take place.

The steps for effective teaching include

§         Choosing the learning objectives

§         Providing a discovery experience that helps the ;learner understand the need for the skill

§         Demonstrating or explaining the skill

§         Allowing the learner to practice the skill

§         Evaluating the process.

Three Types of Managers

Domineering Manager:

Domineering manager thinks that people have to respect him/her just because he/she is a manager. They also believe that just because they are managers, they do not need to work as hard as other people. They don't show respect towards their staff and keep themselves separate from them as much as possible.

A domineering manager has a win-lose attitude towards his/her staff and is often angry and over-emotional with them. He/she likes to shout at the staff when they make mistake. Often a domineering manager will prevent his/her staff from developing and growing. He/she feels threatened when his/her staff succeeds or “gets too clever”. He/she enjoys ordering people about to show how important he/she is and doesn't feel the need to be polite to people when he/she is ordering them about.

This kind of a manager never admits his/her mistakes to his/her staff and instead shifts the blame onto others. If there is no one else to blame, he/she will find excuses to avoid the blame. He/she always works on the principle that “boss is always right”. A domineering manager seldom if ever shows appreciation towards his/her staff's good work. And he/she never praises them when they work well, but checks them angrily whenever they make mistakes.

In his book “Leadership” Anthony D`Souza discusses certain characteristics of Domineering Managers

§         Generally strong willed, domineering and to some extent aggressive

§         Must have their own way, which for them, seems the only way

§         Look upon subordinates more as functionaries than as persons and the best subordinate is their estimation follow directions without questions.

§        Ordinarily are not ready to listen to views and suggestion of others, if they offer different opinions

§         Do not encourage equal relationships. As a rule they do not intermingle with the employees

§         Have business like and task oriented attitudes

§         Generally blame poor results on the inability of others to carry out instructions correctly.

Professional Manager:

A professional manager works hard to win the respect of his/her staff. He/she believes that he/she has to work harder than his staff because he/she is a manager. He/she respects hi/hers staff as equals and tries to understand them as individuals. He/she communicates openly with his/her superiors and other staff as often as possible because he/she realizes that this will help him/her to do his/her job better.

A professional manager realizes that his/her relationship with his/her staff should be mutually satisfactory. He/she thus stays calm & rationale', even when handling serious staff problems or mistakes. He/she actively encourages his/her staff to develop their skills and abilities and feels happy when they succeed.

This manager delegates work in order to achieve company objectives as efficiently as possible. He/she takes responsibility if he/she makes mistakes and is able to admit and apologize sincerely to his/her staff. He/she shows appreciation towards his/her staff's good work and corrects them professionally when they do not perform well or lack discipline.

A professional manager believes that his/her staff can and should contribute to the success of the company. This means that he/she invites and encourages them to give him/her input, ideas and suggestions. He/she also involves them in solving problems by asking them to think of ideas for solutions and implementing the best ideas. He/she is also willing to listen to, understand & act on criticism or complaints from the staff.

Professional Managers are characterized by a number of distinctive practices. All of these descriptions have common themes- openness to change, ability to visualize the future, be guided by a vision and communicate it powerfully to others, entrust the mission to others, display commitment through action, and encourage followers. Here are set of categories on which writers have agreed.

Characteristic 1- Question groupthink by:

Characteristic 2- Reset direction by:

Characteristic 3 – Guide cooperative Action by:

Characteristic 4- Walk the Talk by:

Characteristic 5- Motivate others by:

Timid Manager:

A weak manager does not show that he/she is a manager. Effectively, he/she is almost the same as the other staff because he/she does not perform his/her managerial roles, as giving guidance and instructions. In his/her relationship with the staff, it is not clear who is leading whom. A weak supervisor ignores the mistakes of the staff and simply does not enforce discipline. He/she is never strict or angry with his /her staff, but he/she often feels stressed, as the work is not done properly.

A weak manager does not have the courage to give instructions or guidelines to his/her staff as a result his/her staff always feels that “everything is OK” and do not feel the need to develop or work hard. He/she often does his/her staff's work for them and corrects their mistakes by himself. As a result the staff often takes advantage of a weak manager, and may make unreasonable demands on him/her.

This type of manager does not have the confidence to give feedback to staff about their work performance. He/she cannot praise nor can he/she reprimand, as a result, his/her staff does not know whether their work performance is satisfactory or not.

Qualities of a Manager

1. Achievement Orientation

Motivation is a multifaceted process. Fundamental to it is an understanding of what motivates people. Much of what has been written about motivation in management literature focuses on attitudes towards people and what motivates them. Whenever, and wherever, people are required to offer their services in exchange of compensation, a kind of tussle creeps in most cases between “labored efforts” and “inspiration” for doing tasks. At the lower end (of efforts) people are urged upon to do their best in return of wages. At the other end (of inspiration), people are encouraged through incentives of higher payments, personal growth, recognition, better quality of life, and challenges to continue to put in better performance. The truth is that neither rewards nor fear nor encouragement can by themselves ensure on part of human beings to give their best. It is only a balanced integration of these factors that can bring about motivation, which is in true sense, signifies “innate willingness on the part of the working people to give their best and to continue to do better than their best”.  (Reference: Madhurendra K. Verma, 1997- ‘Managing more effectively')

There are three sources of motivation.

1.      Affinity

2.      Achievement

3.      Power

An example: A mountaineer achieved his target by climbing a 2000 meters high mountain. If he is affinity oriented he thinks until and unless he receives a word of encouragement from my family, friends and relatives and gets name and fame for his success, he is not motivated to achieve higher targets.

If he is a power oriented person he has the expectations of financial or monetary benefits after achieving certain targets. The power, money and the benefits are his main source of motivation to achieve further.

But if he is an achievement-oriented person, his work and achievements are his motivation, which makes him to strive further and achieve higher targets. He is not influenced by other sources such as power, name, fame and money. He has only one objective that is achievement.

Achievement oriented person has more willingness to put the best of efforts without getting immediately affected by the environment, such a person continues to work even though he may not get all favorable conditions but at the end his hard work pays him.

Achievement oriented person

1.      Has desire for some standard of excellence in a performance related situation.

2.      Shoulders responsibility

3.      Makes decision

4.      Takes moderate risks

5.      Persist in the face of adversity

6.      Is innovative and tries various alternatives

7.      Compete with others

8.      Compete with self

Motivation theories

a. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

The concept of a hierarchy of needs was advanced by Abraham Maslow, a psychologist. Maslow assumed that humans “want" beings who seek to fulfill a variety of needs. He assumed that these needs can be arranged according to their importance in a sequence known as Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

1.      At the most basic level is physiological needs, the things we require to survive. These needs include food and water, clothing, shelter, and sleep.

2.      At the next level are safety needs, the things we require for physical and emotional security. They may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plans, and safe working conditions.

3.      Next are the social needs, the human requirements for love, affection, and a sense of belonging. To an extent, these needs can be satisfied through the work environment and the informal organization. But they also include relationships beyond the workplace.

4.      Esteem needs include the need for respect and recognition (the esteem of others) as well as a sense of accomplishment and worth (self-esteem). These needs may be satisfied through personal accomplishment, promotion to more responsible jobs, various honors and awards, and other forms of recognition.

5.      At the uppermost level are self-actualization needs, the needs to grow and develop as people and to become all that we are capable of being. These are the most difficult needs to satisfy, and the means of satisfying them tend to vary with the individual.

6.      Maslow suggested that people work to satisfy their physiological needs first, their safety needs next, and so on up the "needs ladder."

           a.            In general, people are motivated by the needs at the lowest (most important) level that remain unsatisfied.

           b.            However, needs at one level do not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next-higher level come into play.

          c.            Maslow's hierarchy of needs provides a useful way of viewing employee motivation as well as a guide for management. By and large, American business has been able to satisfy workers' basic needs, but the higher-order needs present more of a problem.

b. Hertzberg's Motivation Theory

1. Another model proposed by Hertzberg is even more applicable in work situations like that of an organization and known as the two factor model, or the Maintenance – Motivation Model, it can be best understood through following diagrammatic representation.

The presence of maintenance factors generally brings employees to a satisfied neutral state, meaning alternatively that while these may not be strong motivating factors but their absence can cause dissatisfaction. On the other hand, the second set of factors can be carefully induced in a working environment for bringing their motivation to a desired level.

2. Using Hertzberg's Motivation Theory. Hertzberg provides explicit guidelines for using the motivation theory of employee motivation.

a.      He suggests that the hygiene factors must be present to ensure that a worker can function comfortably. But he warns that a state of no dissatisfaction never exists.

b.      Managers should make hygiene as good as possible but should then expect only short-term improvement in motivation.

c.      Managers must work to provide the motivation factors, which will presumably enhance motivation and long-term effort.

d.      Employee pay has more effect than is explained by Hertzberg's theory.

c. Theory X and Theory Y

The concepts of Theory X and Theory Y were advanced by Douglas McGregor in his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise. They are, in reality, sets of assumptions that underlie management's attitudes and beliefs regarding worker behavior.

1.      Theory X is a concept of employee motivation generally consistent with Taylor's scientific management. The basic assumptions of Theory X include the following:

a.      People dislike work and try to avoid it.

b.      Because people dislike work, managers must coerce, control, and frequently threaten employees to achieve organizational goals.

c.      People generally must be led because they have little ambition and will not seek responsibility. They are concerned mainly with security.

2.      Theory Y is a concept of employee motivation generally consistent with the ideas of the human relations movement. The basic assumptions of Theory Y include the following:

a.      People do not naturally dislike work. In fact, work is an important part of their lives.

b.      People will work toward goals to which they are committed.

c.      People become committed to goals when it is clear that accomplishing the goal will bring personal rewards.

d.      People often seek out and willingly.

e.      Employees have the potential to help accomplish organizational goals.

f.        Organizations generally do not make full use of their human resources.

3.      McGregor argued that most managers behave in accordance with Theory X. But he maintained that Theory Y is more appropriate and effective as a guide for managerial action.

When discussing motivation effective managers recognize that practical implication of motivation theories has a lot more to it than just money. Although money holds importance it is just one factor. The other environmental factors cause dissatisfaction but have little relationship to the job themselves. For example work rules, working conditions, pay, tea, coffee- breaks, fringe benefits, quality of supervision and so forth. Interestingly, the organizations themselves largely determine the environmental factors.

However, what motivates people to make them give their best arises from within job itself If the job is challenging, allows a feeling of achievement, is interesting, provides responsibility, opportunities for growth, offers earned recognition and advancement, people will be motivated. Although it is always difficult to provide the right climate opportunities, effective managers realize its rewards. People are different- with different needs, wants, expectations and ambitions. Furthermore, these needs, ambitions expectations change as they grow older, have new experiences their life situation changes and their environment

How to motivate team members?

Encouragement starts with each individual. Managers start by taking the easy way – assigning people to aspects of the vision that they are best at, providing them with the training to be successful, giving them enough challenge to keep it interesting, and keeping score, so that the individual knows his success level and can gain satisfaction from it.

Team members also derive satisfaction from the knowledge that they are engaged in an endeavor that has meaning beyond their own small contribution. Being constantly reminded of the goal encourages many to persist when they might otherwise give up. Likewise the camaraderie they share with team members provides reassurance and support.

Because leaders tend to know people in general and their followers in particular, they tend to know what motivates them, how they like to work, their skill, motivation, and confidence levels. Because leaders tend to like their followers, they often refer to them as family. They create ways to foster openness and to get to know people on a personal level. They are involved with and in touch with them. They know their aspirations and dreams. That knowledge is invaluable when providing extrinsic recognition.

Always give team the total picture of all plans, work schedules, problems and solutions being involved, with which they are, or should be legitimately involved. Pay greater attention to issues that are of immediate concern to them, such as how they have been performing, how their efforts are affecting the quality, cost of production, time schedule, safety, security etc.

The team expects you to provide better quality of life at the workplace, particularly in terms of

-          Good physical working conditions

-          Outlet for creativity and originality

-          Opportunity for challenging and quality work.

-          Congenial co-workers.

-          Being treated as a person with feelings and needs

-          Fair policies.

Credit – providing positive feedback. In crediting individual performance, leaders are careful to be credible. A credible source is one who demonstrates knowledge of the specifics of an event in the context of a larger picture. No matter how autonomous or empowered the worker, everyone likes to know that what he or she is doing is being noticed and appreciated by someone.

Managers give credit on a regular and frequent basis. They recognize the ordinary and extraordinary efforts people make. They tend to be appreciative of small acts of thoughtfulness. They privately or publicly credit team members as often as opportunity permits.

They also recognize unfruitful effort and risk taking – even when these efforts do not produce the desired results. Reinforcing risk taking, innovation, and honest effort that fails is as important as reinforcing the efforts that end in the desired results. From a motivation standpoint, workers when successful, get rewards from the task. The failed exploit, on the other hand, has a built-in negative reinforcement.

In addition to crediting risk taking and failed effort, the leader helps identify the lessons learned from the unfruitful effort.

Crediting steps

Here is how to give credible credit:

Identify the result the person achieved.

Note one or two elements about the behavior that were critical to achieving that result.

Explain why that result was important to the mission of the group.

Offer your appreciation.

Why be so structured?

There are reasons for each step. The first acknowledges the person's performance and clearly identifies that you are aware of it. Next comes the credibility builder – the part that the manager is “out and about' among his group has no problem with. It requires that you know what the person did, the risk he or she took, the effort required, the problems encountered – in other words the real details. Trying the performance to the greater significance of the group's vision identifies the importance of the action – which is something the person may not have thought about. Then comes the thank you.

When to credit

Credit should especially be given for effort and risk taking – even when the desired results are not achieved. Credit at such times should be coupled with constructive feedback and support in problem solving. This support involves teaching how to analyze failures (before memory fades) to learn valuable lessons. The leader should publicly credit team members when opportunities arise.

Effective managers are generous with credible crediting! It is a reason why their followers are willing to make great effort for them.

Managers know that high expectations are motivating. They also know that there is nothing more de-motivating than one or two team members who bring down the level or results for the whole team. In a sports setting, such performance might cost the team ranking or a game. In a business setting, it may put pressure on other team members, or result in failure to meet quality standards or time frames.

Usually, team members will monitor from within. However, it is the responsibility of the leader to make sure that constructive feedback is given when it is required – not withstanding the training and coaching that is on going.

Team membership requires performance levels. Members are responsible for maintaining them.

Constructive feedback steps

To give constructive feedback, a manager must:

“We” is a telltale word for the manager. The manager plans with the team. Team members own the process. By tapping into the leadership qualities in the team, the leader creates an atmosphere of appropriate challenge, recognition for achievement, and support for risk taking. Team members are challenged to use judgment, to take risk taking. Team members are challenged to use judgment, to take calculated risks, and to learn from their own mistakes. In a nurturing team environment, “mistakes” are a natural outcome of making decisions. The important thing the team learns from them is to correct them quickly.

Providing the environment that nurtures this type of involvement and ownership is critical to a team spirit.

Some manager has institutionalized occasions to credit team efforts and build team bonds. These include:

Rankle gatherings such as the weekly “holy hour” favored in some of the British armed forces. Here anybody can say anything that is on his or her mind to any other member of the fraternity, regardless of rank. After “holy hour,” such fluid lines of communication evaporate.

Casual days. Casual dress is a metaphor for the lifting of barriers to communications.

Organization recreational events such as picnics, outings, sports team.

Organizational recognition celebrations and roasts.

Organization-sponsored community service events including weekend clean-up projects, sponsorship of school or sporting events.

These activities tend to raise spirits and lower inhibitions, such as fostering closeness, camaraderie, and trust.

Rewards are also important to member standing within the team. These can take many forms: a public thank you, monetary incentives, plaques, special parking spaces, etc. It is wise to keep rewards simple; so that they do not overshadow or displace the intrinsic reward the person gets from doing the task.

2. Target Setting and Decision Making

For target setting and decision-making following things are to be noted:

1. Taking initiative is the first and foremost criteria.

2.. It is important to make appropriate decision keeping one's capability in view- not to over or under estimate one's abilities and potential.

3. One should not get struck at any stage or not get satisfied by the achievements but strive further steadily, grow and move ahead in personal and professional life.

4. Learning from past experiences and setting targets.

5. One should always keep one's objectives / goals in sight and put direct efforts in that direction.

6. Taking risks in life and not opts for simple ways out. One should have the capacity to take up challenges in every work that they are doing.

7. Not to be in hasty in deciding or implementing a decision is very important and also to assess one's potential before taking any decision.

3. Achieving within Limitations

The following points are to be noted:

1. One can accomplish tasks within limitations if he or she has the challenge taking attitude.

2. One should work successfully despite minor problems at work area.

3. One should take initiative.

4. Making appropriate decisions – setting realistic targets

5. Keeping track of the progress is very important to achieve set targets.

6. To maintain quality of work during the whole process of achieving the target.

7. To work as a team, provide help and encouragement to each other.

4. Trust and Interpersonal Relations

1. Trust in each other is required among the functionaries at the work place to work as a team and ensure that each receives equal opportunities and progress.

2. One should not be selfish to gain all advantages.

3. One should not try to win at the cost of others.

4. One should not feel that since he/ she does not gain, he/ she should not allow others to gain too.

5. While spirit of healthy competition is desirable, it should not be reduced to a relationship of animosity.

6. If one looks for individual gain that the gain is only for a short term which is not sustainable.

5.  Teamwork and Cooperation  

Teamwork is individuals working together to accomplish more than they could alone. This happens as different skills, knowledge and aptitudes are combined.

However in order to do so, a good team calls for certain basic qualities to be possessed in itself and the individuals. These are:

§         Appropriate distribution of responsibilities and work

§         Clear objectives and consensus on the same

§         Openness in behaviour

§         Understanding the needs and aspirations of others

§         Trust and Good Interpersonal relations

§         Cooperation and collective striving for higher goals

§         Appropriate and fair means

§         Good leadership

§         Ongoing review of progress

§         Collective problem solving

§         Growth opportunity for everyone.

TEAM APPROACH

If we promote teamwork in our organization, positive results are certain to follow. Participants will achieve better results by collaborating than by working independently. Working as a team provides interaction and interaction provides insights, ideas, solutions and directions. However, despite its obvious advantages it does not always work. If you want to make it work, take care of following:

1.      Meet when necessary, but not pointlessly. Always have clear-cut objectives and agenda.

2.      Do not push your thoughts – leaders often leak their own ideas to subordinates before they have had a chance to state their e.g. I'm absolutely convinced we should get funds from this organization, but of course we won't do it until you have had a chance to speak your minds. This is a means of ensuring that no real discussion takes place.

3.      Exercise all options – People are most likely to generate fertile, productive ideas when they first have all the information they need.  This is necessary for collective decision-making.

4.      Nurture good Interpersonal Relationships – Good IPR calls for a humane approach to people.  A team leader and also other members must try to understand the hopes, disappointments, feelings, needs, and expectations of others.  Sensitivity and sincerity within oneself are necessary attributes for having good IPR.

Elements of Team work
Seven ways to Credit the Relationship Account

If you want to enjoy a good relationship with your staff, all you need to do is make sure that you regularly show kindness and sincerity to him/ her, through practical and real actions.

 It's a bit like depositing in a bank account. If you want to save a lot of money you need to deposit money little by little over a long period of time. Similarly, if you want to enjoy an excellent relationship with your staffs, you need to act positively towards that person on a regular basis, so that little by little you build up a great relationship. There are literally thousand of ways to deposit in the relationship account. Here are just a few particular powerful ways.

1.Support and help when you can:

Your staff will feel  closer to you if they  feel that you are concerned about their problems and that you are willing to help  and support them  when they are facing serious obstacles. A major withdrawal from the relationship account occurs when supervisors demand results from staff without thinking about whether they have the knowledge, skills and equipment necessary to perform the job. On the other hand, staff who feel that their supervisor is there to make sure they get the support and help they need are much more likely to feel close to him or her.

2. Understand people as people

There are so many ways to show someone that you consider him / her unique and special. You can take time to understand what's important to him / her and how he/ she see life.

3. Do what you say you will do

Keeping commitments and promises is a big deposit, but breaking them is a major withdrawal. As a manager, do not make commitments that you are not sure you can keep to your staff. It is much better to refuse a request from a staff with clear reason than to give a commitment that you know you cannot keep.

4. Congratulate others on their successes

When your staff does well, tell them that you are happy for them

5. Show appreciation and gratitude

The words Please and Thank you are vital here. It is extremely important to your relationship account to show that you appreciate and value the help and support your staff gives you.

6. Say sorry when you upset or disappoint people

This is major deposit in the relationship account. It is also the first step in building the relationship back up again.

6. Leadership Qualities

Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives.

1)      achieving the task

2)      building the team

3)      developing and motivating the individuals

The qualities of a good leader and the significance of good leadership are as follows:

Ø      Understand the task and facilitate others to understand before implementation.

Ø      Delegating work/assigning roles to each member.

Ø      Working along with the members.

Ø      Ensure that members have similar opinion and one plan of action.

Ø      Ensure that everyone works towards a common objective and do not deviate or loose direction.

Ø      The capabilities of all members are optimally utilized.

Ø      All group decisions are timely and work progresses smoothly.

Ø      Team members should be continuously motivated and encouraged.

Ø      Keep monitoring the group's work at an ongoing basis.


Skills of a Manager

1. Effective Delegation

Delegation means;

§         Giving opportunity to others (subordinates) to perform their responsibilities,

§         Enable subordinates to discover & utilize their capacities,

§         For completing the task in an effective & efficient manner,

§         To perform more work with better results.

Effective delegation is a way to avoid misunderstanding and maximize the chance that both you and your staff will be happy with the results of the work you delegate to them. When you explain what you want to be done in a systematic and complete way you can be more confident that your subordinate will do the job properly. To delegate effectively, follow these guidelines:

1)      Allow adequate time to delegate. Do not rush.

2)      Make small talk and ask for help nicely.

3)      Explain the background of the task: what is the project, what are the objectives, why the task is important, and the impact of the task on other people.

4)      Explain what results you expect, when you will check them and the deadline.

5)      Explain the dos and don'ts that must be followed in doing the task.

6)      Explain what resources and supports are available for doing the task.

7)       Ask the subordinate to ask any questions or give her ideas.

8)      Ask the subordinates to repeat the instructions.

9)      Thank her for her cooperation.

10)  Follow up to check the completion of the task at the time agreed.

11)  Show appreciation for any work well done.

12)  Facilitate kindly to correct any mistakes

Qualities of a Good Delegator

2. Correcting Poor Performance

To correct poor performances at the beginning, you calmly and logically explain the problem and its consequences in detail; it is the difficult part like climbing the mountain because your staff will feel uncomfortable. As you explain the impacts of the mistake, the staff will probably show that he or she realizes that he or she has done something wrong and apologize. As soon as this happens or you are sure that your staff understands that he has made the mistake you are ready for the second half. You may need to read your staff body language to hear is or her acknowledgement or poor performance. Even if you don't receive a verbal acknowledgement of poor performance you need to move to the next step.

The second half is much more positive. Here you ask for input from the staff and focus on solution so that the whole approach has a positive effect. In this way you achieve your objective. It is most probable that your staff performance will improve in future and that he or she will not repeat the same mistake.

3. Empowering Staff

Empowering one's staff means helping them to achieve their potential by taking on more responsibility, becoming more competent, and making more decisions for themselves.

Here are some ways for you to empower your staff:

1) Give them greater work responsibilities.

2) Allow them to make decisions where they're capable of doing so

3) Ask them for ideas and suggestions and incorporate them in your decisions

4) Involve them in setting team goals and deciding how to achieve them

5) Share your knowledge and skills with them so they become more and more capable

6) Set high work standards and encourage/help them to meet them

4. Communication

Effective communication is the core of all managerial activity. Managers know they can best achieve their goals if they have the cooperation of the people they work with. Their ability to communicate effectively enables them to influence the attitudes and actions of their colleagues and subordinates. All phases of management – planning, organizing, staffing and human resource management – depend on communication, from conceptualizing to executing and to feedback stages. And a manager's job, by its very nature, requires spending more time and effort on communication than on most other functions.

What is communication?

Communication means a mutual exchange of information and understanding by any effective means. This implies that communication; to be effective must have an exchange of ideas with understanding. Unless the flow goes both ways no real communication takes place. Although usually looked upon merely as a conveyor of information or instructions, communication, is essentially concerned with feelings, ideas, and attitudes.  It is a process – and capacity of an individual or individuals –for conveying and receiving:

The importance of communication for a manager
  1. In any enterprise involving two or more persons, coordination of activities assumes great importance; and communications acts like a glue that holds the various people and work groups together. It is essential for the success of any enterprise.
  2. Communication is not only vital in formulating and implementing enterprise plans, but is also the principal means of achieving the objectives of the enterprise. All decision- making, implementations, follow- ups are information- processing-and-sharing activities, which simply cannot be carried out without communication.
  3. Managers cannot lead and motivate others if they do not have, and do not know how to user, the vehicle of communication.
  4. Communication can be either the best opportunity or fatal weakness for managers if they do not use it properly. Therefore, an understanding of the process of communication and of different kinds of barriers to communication can pave the way to improved managerial performance.
  5. Change is a universal factor of enterprise management. In the ultimate analysis, it is only through communication that change can be anticipated, considered, analyzed and introduced.
  6. Communication is essential for effective enterprise relations- with the stakeholders whose continued support is so essential for survival and growth of an enterprise.
Breakdowns in communication:

Barriers in communication are always there, and they have the capacity to distort the messages beyond recognition if care is not taken to minimize their distorting effects. This we can do only when we are aware of what kinds of barriers, and from which quarter, we have to contend with.

The complexity of this aspect of communication can be gauged from the fact that barriers can creep in the following shapes

In this connection, it often helps for receivers to restate the speakers positions in their own words so that the speakers agree that the receivers hear them correctly.

How can effective and efficient communication be ensured?

To ensure an efficient and effective communication there are three considerations:

Thus you must learn to listen as well as to speak.

Rule 1: PLAY BACK for confirmation

Simple, you ask for confirmation

You say “let me see if I have understood correctly, you are saying that….” And you rephrase what the speaker said.

If the original speaker acknowledges this “playback version” as being correct, then you have a greater degree of confidence in your own understanding.

For any viewpoint/message/decision, there should be a clear, concise and verified statement of what was said; without this someone will get it wrong.

Rule 2: WRITE BACK for confidence

If your time and effort depend upon it, you should write it down and send it to everyone involved as a double check. This has several advantages.

Rule 3: Give Background for context

When speaking yourself, you can often counter for possible by adding information, and so providing a broader context in which your words can be understood.

Thus, there is less scope for alternative interpretations since fewer are consistent.

When other are speaking, you should deliberately ask questions yourself to establish the context in which they are thinking.

Rule 4: Practical points

As with all effective communication, you should decide (in advance) on the purpose of the conversation and the plan for achieving it.

Some people are proficient at ‘thinking on their feet”- but this is generally because they already have clear understanding of the context and their own goals.

You have to plan; however, the following are few techniques to help the conversation along.

Rule 5: Assertiveness

The definition of to assert is “to declare; state clearly” This is your aim.

If someone argues against you, even loses their temper, you should be quietly assertive.

Much has been written about to preach this simple fact and commonly the final message is a three- fold plan of action.

Rule 6: Confrontations

When you have a difficult encounter, be professional, do not loose your self- control because, simply it is of no use.

Some managers believe that it is useful for “discipline” to keep staff a little nervous.

Thus these managers are slightly volatile and will be willing “to let then have it” when the situation demands.

If you do this, you must be consistent and fair so that you and staff know where they stand.

If you deliberately lose your temper for effect, then that is your decision- however, you must never lose control.

Rule 7: Seeking Information

There are two ways of phrasing any information: one -way (the closed question) is likely to lead to a simple grunt in reply (yes, or may be)

The second way (the open question) will hand over the speaking role to someone else and force him or her to say something a little more informative.

Rule 8: Let others speak

Of course, there is more top a conversation (managed or otherwise) than the flow of information. You may also have to win that information by winning the attention and confidence of the other person.

There are many forms of flattery- the most effective is to give people your interest.

Rule 9: Finish

At the end of a conversation, you have to give people a clear understanding of the outcome.

For instance, if there has been a decision, restate it clearly (just to be sure) in terms of what should happen and by when; if you have been asking questions, summarize the significant (for you) aspects of what you have learn.

Characteristics of Three Communication Styles

1. Aggressive Communication

Aggressive Communication comes from the belief that you are superior to other people and don't need to show them respect. Aggressive person is who:

2. Passive Communication

Passive Communication comes from feelings that you are inferior and your opinions and needs aren't really important. A passive person:

3. Assertive Communication

Important Skill of Listening

Effective managers learn a lot about what people think, what is important to them, because they listen. The hallmark of their listening includes:

Benefits of Effective Listening:

1.      Good listening improves morale. When leaders listen effectively (with full attention), they receive respect. This helps satisfy others' needs for self-esteem. As a result, the morale of the group improves.

2.      Effective listening makes better leaders. Studies show that managers with good production records give a proportionately greater amount of their time to the human relationships and interpersonal aspects of their jobs. Managers of high –production groups differ from those of low-production groups because they:

§         Are more employee-oriented than production oriented;

§         Encourage employee participation in problem solving and in decision making;

§         Spend more time in managing people and less time in straight production work;

§         Have greater confidence in their managerial roles.

Many managers are discovering that getting jobs done requires respecting people. People want to have a say in what they do and to feel that their managers listen to them.

3. Effective listening saves time. When people hear something correctly the first time, they don't have to ask, “Would you repeat that, please?”

4.  Effective listening avoids confusion. Those who listen well get the message and avoid misunderstandings. While effective listening takes time and is sometimes difficult, the returns justify the efforts. Unfortunately, most people receive little or no training on how to listen. We stress speaking, reading, and writing. People spend their communication-time as follows:

45% listening;
30% speaking;
16% reading; and
9% writing.

Grades of listening

Most people think that they are good listeners, and that listening is a simple skill. In fact listening is a very difficult skill to truly master and many people are not very good at it. The problem lies in the fact that the people tend to like to speak more then they like to listen. So when they are listening to people they are not really paying attention, but simply waiting for their next turn to speak.

There are four different grades of listening

Grade 0: Not paying attention

When you are not paying attention you are not listening at all. You are either completely ignorant what the speaker is saying or you are pretending to listen to the speaker.

Grade 1: Intermittent listening

This means only listening to the speaker when he is saying something you are really interested in and pretending to listen or ignore when he starts talking about something that you find a bit boring.

Grade 2: Listening with attention

Here you are listening quite well. One is concentrating on what the speaker says, and remembering the points that he is making.

Grade 3: Empathic listening

It is the highest level of listening, you are not only listening to the words that someone is saying but you are actively trying to see the situation from his point of view.

How to listen emphatically

Emphatic listening is the highest grade of listening. It means trying to hear not only the words that someone is saying to you but also the perspective and feelings behind the words.

Listening emphatically is a great way to diagnose a problem accurately before you decide how o help the speaker solve it. It encourages people to be really open with you about what the real problem is. It enables the speaker to talk freely without fear. It is an extremely important skill for the manager to develop.

Many managers do not listen emphatically during solving problems. When their staff reports a problem they jump to conclusions before understanding what the real problem is. Then they blame or criticize the staff concerned and force him to implement a hasty solution that may not actually address the real problem at all. Approaching problem in this way is a disaster. Not only does the manager damage his relationship with his staff, but also he usually fails to solve the real problem.

Aspects of Good Listener:

Accessible                                          Available when people want to talk.

Interested                                           Eager to know what other people think and feel.               

Attentive                                             Concentrates on the person speaking.

Encourages expression                      Encourages others to say what they really feel and think.

Doesn't interrupt                                 Listens without the need to offer other view points.

Suspends judgment                            Makes no decision until all viewpoints have been heard.

Values different views                         Respects different viewpoints.

Shows empathy and                           Demonstrates empathy through action understanding through verifying.
Understanding        

Doesn't talk too much                         Does not seek to dominate conversation.

Many busy managers close their doors so they can complete paperwork. Others find that they end up doing the paperwork before others arrive in the morning or after they leave for the day – because they are always accessible to those who want to drop into consult them or to those who want to reach them by telephone. Followers know the person is accessible.

People who are really interested in what another has to say ask questions, want to know details, and explore avenues that the person talking might not have thought about. Interested listeners are valuable.

One sign of interest is the way the listener attends to the speaker. Signs of attention include looking at the person, taking notes, and following what is said.

Sometimes it is necessary to coax people to speak up, to share thoughts. There are those who think their thoughts are insignificant, or that no one cares. Leaders tend to encourage expression of views by asking lots of questions. They solicit input more widely by encouraging use of suggestion boxes, open door policies, and informal gatherings where everyone mingles on an equal footing.

Letting someone finish a thought – even a rambling one you have heard umpteen times before - reinforces an image of interest. It is, of course, also a mark of respect and courtesy practiced in most civil discourse.

One reason why good listeners don't interrupt is because they are willing to suspend judgment until they have heard the whole story.

A leader's source for views is often his or her ability to synthesize widely varying opinions by finding common concerns in them.

Managers have a variety of ways of showing they have heard what speakers are telling them. Verifying understanding is an obvious way. Taking action on what has been explained is another. Action that demonstrates empathy may take the form of food and toy drives, actions to assist with medical care or assistance in a catastrophe.

Though a leader may speak eloquently, he or she will know how and when to be quiet.

In her book, “Listening: The Forgotten Skill”, Madelyn Burley-Allen offers practical tips for effective listening. Here are some of them:

1.      Be attentive. Create a positive atmosphere through non-verbal behavior. When people are alert, attentive, and non-distracted, and have good eye contact, others feel important and more positive.

2.      Be interested in the other's needs.

3.      Listen from the “okay” listening mode. That means:

“Oh, it's not that bad.”

“You'll be better tomorrow.”

“It will blow over. Don't be upset.”

“You shouldn't feel that way. It's such a small matter.”

“You're making a mountain out of a molehill”

4.      Don't let the other person “hook” you. This happens when you get angry, hurt, or upset. You allow yourself to get involved in an argument, jump to conclusions, or pass judgment on the other person.

5.      Indicate you are listening by :
§         Encouraging
§         Non-committal acknowledgement
§         Brief expression, such as
§        
“Hmmm.” “Uh-huh” “I see”
§        
“Right.” “Oh.” “Interesting”
§        
Non-verbal acknowledgment, such as
      +        Head nodding
      +        Facial expression (matching what the speaker is saying)
      +        Body expression or movement that is relaxed)
      +        Body expression or movement that is relaxed and open
      +        Eye contact
      +        Touching.

§         Door-openers such as
      +        “Tell me more about it.”
      +        “I'd like to hear what you're thinking.”
      
+        “Would you like to talk about it?”
      
+        “Let's discuss it.”
      
+        “Sounds as if you've got some ideas or feelings about this.”
      
+        “I'd be interested in what you have to say.”

§         Ground Rules.
      
+        Don't interrupt
      
+        Don't take the subject off in a another direction
      
+        Don't interrogate
      
+        Don't teach
      
+        Don't give advice
      
+        Do reflect back to the sender what you observe and how you believe the speaker feels.

Test Yourself

How do you rate yourself as a listener?

When taking part in a discussion with your employee, do you:

Points of inquiry

Usually

Sometimes

Seldom

Prepare your self physically by sitting facing the speaker and making sure you can hear?

     

Watch the speaker as well as listen to him/her?

     

Decide from the speaker's appearance and delivery whether or not what he has to say is worthwhile?

     

Listen primarily for ideas and underlying feelings?

     

Determine your own bias, if nay, and try to allow for it?

     

Keep your mind on what the speaker is saying?

     

Interrupt immediately if you hear a statement you feel is wrong?

     

Make sure before answering that you have taken in the other person's point of view?

     

Try to have the last word?

     

Make a conscious effort to evaluate the logic of what you hear?

     

Scoring Key

On questions: 1,2,,4,5,6,8, and 10

For “usually”

Give yourself

10 marks

For “sometimes”

Give yourself

5 marks

Or “seldom”

Give yourself

0 marks

On questions: 3,7 and 9

 For “usually”

Give yourself

0 marks

For “sometimes”

Give yourself

10 marks

Or “seldom”

Give yourself

5 marks

What your score means

5. Managing Employees

There are 4 types of employees:

  1. Low on skill but uninterested in taking responsibilities:
  1. Low on skill and interested in taking responsibilities:
  1. High on skill but uninterested in taking responsibilities:
  1. High on skill and interested in taking responsibilities:

It is very important for the managers to understand the principles of managing the four types of employees this will enable them to adopt an effective approach to manage all four types.

Type three employees can be very difficult for managers to deal with. A manager needs to be firm and tactful and not let the staff drag him down into the staff gain. In dealing with such a person a manager needs to implement praising and correcting the poor performance. The manager needs to be confident in giving correction and criticism as necessary. If the manager has tried a positive communication approach over long period of time with type three employees, but the employee continues to show no responsibility towards his work then a gradual process towards dismissing him/her is to be taken up seriously.

Type four employees need to be managed positively. It is important for the manager to make them feel recognized appreciated and involved. If managed inappropriately, type four employees may gradually become type three employees, as a way of rebelling against his/her manager. If you adopt a domineering approach to type four employees it is highly likely that they will become type three employees.

A manager needs to make sure that he/she does not burden type two employees, and if they are managed appropriately they will develop over time into type four.